Cannabis cultivation has been taking place for years and it was grown for different reasons. Cannabis has different purposes ranging from hemp production for industrial purposes to entheogenic use. Marijuana has been found to have a variety of uses making the plant versatile.
Marijuana through pollination is able to spread its seed worldwide without human assistance. This plant has been growing all over the world before people started transporting it majorly for economic reasons.
Cultivation of Hemp for Cannabidiol
Over the years the demand for CBD based products has increased significantly, this has called for improvement in how hemp is breed in order to increase quantities and quality of hemp CBD obtained per acre of land. Hemp crop has other uses like the industrial production of fiber, this reason the crop is characterized by high plants which are dense. Hemp grown for CBD oil production are not high and have less density as well. These two characteristics help to have the harvesting process easy and also enable sunlight to penetrate through to the plant.
Farmers in the US, grow hemp for CBD purposes only, they plant 1500-2000 hemp plants per hectare of land. Hemp plants have a CBD concentration of 6-12% when in dry weight. For specific strains, it is possible to achieve 18% CBD Concentrate. After harvesting hemp flowers should be dried before being used to extract CBD oil.
The hemp plant is a resistant crop and grows in differently in different types of soils, but it is important to note that it mostly requires the airy type of soil. The soil should not be acidic or saturated with water. The hemp plant is known as a short day growing plant that should only be grown in low temperatures. All this process are carried out in a natural way but CBD oil will still have to be tested for microorganism levels, heavy metals, and pesticides.
Cannabis and hemp plants require certain conditions for them to flourish
- Growth Medium
Growth medium refers to the soil to be used and in other instances, aeroponics and hydroponics are used. The soil should have sufficient nutrients with elements such as potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. These are majorly supplements from fertilizers but using fertilizers requires extra caution.
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Day temperatures for cannabis range from 75℉-86℉. The temperatures should be carefully looked at since any temperature above or below will decrease growth and THC potency.
Light is considered in two ways artificial used in indoor growing and naturally used for outdoor growing. For artificial light, the plant has 0-8 dark hours and 16-24 light hours. This occurs during periods of germination to flowering. Long light periods are appropriate for vegetative growth and dark periods for flowering. This two periods should be well balanced. When cannabis is subjected to light with no dark period the plant loses its vascular development, growth vigor and photosynthesis response decreases. For flowering to take place the plant should be exposed to 12 hours of total darkness. Flowering is triggered through a hormonal reaction in the plant that results from an increase in dark cycles.
Humidity is crucial for any plant to grow. For cannabis Dry conditions will slow down photosynthesis. Ideal levels should be forty to about sixty percent of humidity.
Amount of water and watering frequency is dependent on growth medium ability in retaining water, growth stage, and size of the plant, the age, light, and temperature. If the leaves of the cannabis plant begin to wilt, it is a sign there is a water problem. Over saturation of growth medium will kill the cannabis plant since not enough oxygen is getting to the roots. Bacteria will also start to accumulate due to too much water. The bacteria will start consuming plant roots, fertilizers, and nutrients. Where soil is the growth medium, it should be allowed to dry before watering again.
The soil has enough nutrients for plant and the nutrients are absorbed by roots. Fertilizers are used in a situation soil nutrients are completely depleted or are too low to support plant growth. Fertilizers normally contain mixed ingredients that are powder or liquid form, organic or chemical based. Commercial fertilizers have a blend of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Cannabis plant whoever need more nitrogen than potassium and phosphorus. When fertilizer is being applied it should be done sparingly. This prevents the plant from burning.
Cannabis goes through the following stages of growth:
- Seedling Phase
- Vegetative Phase
- Pre-flowering Phase
- Flowering Phase
After this process harvesting and extraction take place.
The cultivation process should be carefully carried out, that way the CBD terpenes and concentrate produced are of high quality. Farmers using fertilizers should make sure they take extra caution when using them. This is because too much of it will affect the CBD oil and if it has toxic elements will have serious health damages to the users.